Chemokines, 8 to 12 kDa proteins, are a sub-class of the chemokine family. They are classified into four highly conserved groups, sharing 20 to 70 percent of their amino acid sequences. The alpha and beta-chemokines, which contain four cysteines, are the two major families. Among alpha chemokines, one amino acid separates the first two cysteine residues (CXC), whereas in the beta chemokines, the first two cysteine residues are adjacent to each other (CC). There are two minor chemokine groups, one which only has two cysteines (C) and the other which has the first two cysteine residues separated by three amino acids (CXXXC) (1, 2).
Chemokines induce inflammatory cell migration and activation by binding to specific G-protein-coupled cell-surface receptors expressed on different types of leukocytes. The alpha chemokines specifically attract neutrophils, but do not act on lymphocytes. Conversely, beta chemokines do not act on neutrophils, but selectively attract and activate monocytes and lymphocytes. In fact, chemokine signaling attracts and accumulates leukocytes in injured or damaged tissues, initiating both acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Therefore, elevated chemokine levels are observed in many inflammatory diseases (3-5). Furthermore, in malignant cancers, chemokines play roles both in inducing immune-cell infiltration, as well as in cancer-cell proliferation (6).
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3. G. E. White, A. J. Iqbal, D. R. Greaves, CC chemokine receptors and chronic inflammation--therapeutic opportunities and pharmacological challenges. Pharmacological Reviews. 65, 47–89 (2013).
4. P. Proost, A. Wuyts, J. van Damme, The role of chemokines in inflammation. Int. J. Clin. Lab. Res. 26, 211–223 (1996).
5. C. M. M. Martínez, R. H. Pando, Chemokines, a new family of cytokines in inflammatory cell recruitment. Rev. Invest. Clin. 51, 255– 268 (1999).
6. F. Balkwill, Cancer and the chemokine network. Nat Rev Cancer. 4, 540–550 (2004).
Mouse Chemokine Elisa Kits